The texture of food, including the sense of crispness, springiness, firmness, and the feeling on the tongue, is an important element that together with taste has an impact on the deliciousness of food. Food texture is normally evaluated using sensory tests. However, sensory tests are often difficult to reproduce, due to individual differences in people's sensations and physical condition. Shimadzu's texture analyzer supplements sensory tests, and is used as a method for obtaining objective results in the form of numerical values for use in the field of food development.
Maximum test force when loads are applied to a food by a plunger.
Force by which food is broken down in the mouth.
Force by which food is pulled apart when it is touched by hands or put in the mouth, and adheres to the teeth, tongue, and oral cavity.
When a load is applied to a food product, the food is deformed and broken down.
Ratio of the 1st and 2nd load areas (energy) when loading is applied twice in succession.
Ratio of depression and displacement when loading is applied to a food twice in succession with a plunger.
Gumminess: H x A2/A1
Hardness x cohesiveness, semi-solid food products.
Chewiness: H x A2/A1 × T2/T1
Hardness x cohesiveness x springiness, solid food products.
Szczesniak's Texture Profile
|Properties||PrimaryProperties||SecondaryProperties||Common Terms||Description of Properties|
|Mechanical Properties||Hardness||Soft-Firm-Hard||Force required for a given deformation volume. Internal cohesive forces that give the food its shape.|
|Cohesiveness||Fracturability||Crumbly-Crunchy-Brittle||Force required to crush food. Related to hardness and cohesiveness.|
|Chewiness||Soft-Tough||Energy required to chew solid food until it can be swallowed. Related to hardness,cohesiveness,and springiness.|
|Gumminess||Crumbly-Powdery-Pasty-Rubbery||Energy required to chew semi-solid food until it can be swallowed. Related to hardness and cohesiveness.|
|Viscosity||Light and runny-Thick and sticky||Degree of flow for a unit of force|
|Springiness||Plastic/ductile-Elastic||Proportion of a deflection caused by an external force that retuns to the original position after the force is removed|
|Adhesiveness||Gooey-Sticky-Slimy||Force required to overcome the attractive force between the surface of a food product and other things (such as the tongue,teeth,and palate)|
Note:Alina Surmacka Szcaeniak
Texture-related terminology was arranged and systematized for the first time internationally in 1963.
Evaluation of Bread Using Two Jigs (Texture Analyzer)
The food texture, including the springiness, crispness, and firmness, is an important factor in shaping the deliciousness of bread. This example shows a compression test and punching test of the same bread using two different jigs. In the respective tests, evaluation results with differing perspectives were obtained. It was confirmed that by combining the different tests, more multifaceted evaluation results were obtained than would have been possible with a single test.