The minerals contained in a rock record the physical and chemical information of the rock when it was formed. Furthermore, it is also known that the metamorphic process that altered the rock after its formation can be understood by the distribution and structure of the elements. Minerals are also used for ornamental purposes such as in the production of jewelry and garden stones. The compositional analysis of minerals can determine the distribution of elements and trace elements in gemstones, which can be used for gem appraisal, geographic origin determination, etc. Additionally, observing the crystal structure of minerals with atomic resolution provides clues for elucidation of reaction mechanisms and the biomineralization process. This page provides examples of mineral and ore analysis.